Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) – A pigmented cell layer which is between the retina and the choroid layer. It is attached to these layers providing nourishment to the retina.
Cotton-wool spot – A white patch on the retina due to damage to the nerve fibres as a result of swelling on the surface layer of the retina.
Neovascularisation - Growth of new blood vessels, often due to ischaemia.
Bulbar Conjunctiva – a clear membrane which covers the outer surface of the eye. The Palpebral conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids.
Nystagmus - a repetitive and involuntary movement of the eye. This consists of a slow drift of the eye in one direction followed by a fast correction in the other direction. It is seen as a jerky movement
Microaneurysm – a focal dilatation in a capillary, occurring at the venous end.
Ischaemia - Lack of blood supply.
Uveitis - Inflammation of the Uveal tract, which consists of the Choroid, Ciliary body and the Iris.
Palsy – Paralysis of a body part, often accompanied by involuntary tremors.
Granuloma - a lesion which consists of an accumulation of immune cells.
Vitritis – Inflammation of the Vitreous body
Focal infarcts (Elsching’s spots) – Darkened areas in the retina where parts of the Retinal Pigment Epithelium clump together and atrophy. A consequence of hypertensive retinopathy. These appear during acute episodes of Hypertension.
Linear infarcts (Siegrist’s streaks) – hyperpigmented areas of choroid seen along the vessles. These indicate a chronic disease.
Cataract – a clouding which develops in the lens, causing blurred vision.
Keratoconjunctivitis sicca – reduced tear production by the lacrimal glands causing dry eyes.